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Fascism, Nazism and the USA


Nazis have not disappeared – they have simply said they are not Nazis: On Kenosha and the difficulty of recognising Nazism in the US

This says a lot of  dubious stuff, such as this: “As many have laboured to remind this society, Hitler’s genocidal project was inspired by (if not a tribute to) the American colony. Contrary to the racist claim that racism is un-American, it is more accurate to say that the Third Reich was a type of Americanism. European innovation and efficiency were added to the blood quantum laws, Black codes, eugenics,  forced relocation, work camps, and killing fields of rugged America. Slave ships to cattle cars, Tuskegee experiments to Josef Mengele, the Nazi project was less an otherworldly “radical evil”that came out of nowhere than it was a facsimile of the white supremacist order of the colonies.Devotees of a death-cult to pink pigmentation, responsible for murders from Goa to Gambia, are given more benefit of the doubt than a Black boy in a convenience store.”

X’s critique of this:

This article by Yannick Giovanni Marshall  is irritatingly simplistic and typical of identity politicians  (who as a group are mainly to be credited with having elevated narcissism to the level of a political principle) who reduce a phenomenon to the level of their own single narrow concern, oblivious of whether the phenomenon they attack historically preceded the object of their monomania or not. The idea that “the charge of fascism conveniently leaves out or makes subordinate that race hatred that fuels, enables and is the primary reason for the support of this burgeoning authoritarianism [in the US today, not to mention the world]” is the idea of someone who does not know what fascism is, and cannot distinguish the part from the whole. Racism was baked into fascism from the beginning and is not the only thing that comprises it, nor the only thing that makes it what it is. One could say with equal reason that hatred of women and the notion they have equal rights, hatred of anti-militarism and hatred of anti-capitalism were the sole components of fascism and, unsurprisingly, be equally wrong.

One can detect these components of “hatred” to one degree or another in the different varieties of fascism to be found historically, around the world, whether the Marxism-Leninism of the Bolsheviks, Maoists or Ho Chi Minh (despite their spurious support of “national liberation” – tell it to the Tatars, or the Tibetans, or the ethnic Chinese Vietnamese – or their equally fake support of “women’s liberation,” or equality as a principle itself – in the light of “one-man management” for instance, or the number of pockets on cadres’ uniforms, or if one likes, the corpses of Lev Chernyi or Wang Shiwei), or Peronism, Putinism or Trumpism, Obanism or Bolsonarism, but they are always there, because these regimes always need to mobilize their populations against someone demonstrably else, lest they mobilize themselves against them, the ones who are truly responsible for their misery. Depending on conditions, the modus operandi, the road to power, was either the usurpation of the workers’ and peasants’ movements (Bolshevism, Maoism), or their suppression (Italian, German and Spanish fascism), but its fundamental object was the same. The centrality of fascism as first and foremost a reaction to the movements against class society is totally outside Marshall’s comprehension. He sees colonialism everywhere and class-struggle nowhere.

The uniqueness of fascism and the ultimate determinant of its character lies in its ontology. It is the cutting edge, the most toxic, product of the reaction against the workers’ movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was the joint project of the petty-nobility (von der Goltz, Lenin), bourgeoisie, and, above all, the bureaucratic stratum (this includes the army, the police and the civil service) of the European states most threatened by these movements and at the same time threatened by the most developed capitalist states around them. It is, most of all, authoritarian and developmentalist. Workers, peasants, women and minorities were, first of all, impediments to modernization and/or entities ripe for suppression, by way of super-exploitation, and those who resisted or stood out as poles of opposition, were the perfect scapegoats. These states, established in part through the mobilization of hatred for “what was in the way” of “modernization,” were “poor man’s empires” and they had to make up for lost time through a more ferocious exploitation of labor and resources than their more developed competitors (who also had empires abroad that they had already super-exploited as part of their process of capital accumulation). No wonder that the unrestrained looting and colonisation that attended the “birth of a nation” in the United States, along with the modernity of its mass-production techniques (this to both Stalin and Hitler) were so attractive.

Marshall also writes “A leftist that comes away from reading a history of Nazi Germany denouncing first, the Third Reich’s subversion of political norms should be suspected of anti-Semitism.” The leftist who does that should be more than just suspected of not understanding what happened at all. The Third Reich did not subvert political norms, it restored them with a vengeance, and for that job, anti-semitism was an extremely useful instrument, one that any perceptive opportunist would have likely neglected at the price of success. Turning the entire working class into an “other” was beyond reach; it was vital therefore to make the leading and most outspoken members of the German Revolution deviant foreigners. The relatively high proportion of Jewish (Luxemburg, Landauer, Leviné, etc.) and female members of the radical intelligentsia and radical working class made the misogyny and racism already embedded by Christian patriarchy and anti-Jewish bigotry easy to mobilize in the service of the fatherland, as did the fact that the apparent “success” of the revolutionary movement then underway had started in “oriental” and “barbaric” Russia. Finding a population grouped as “other” was an enormous advantage to the reaction, and a tool that was largely unavailable to the other side (this did not prevent certain social-democrats before the first World War, and the “National Bolsheviks” afterward, from trying). This was equally true in the US suppression of the workers movement, especially the IWW, during the same period.

To continue with the main point here: The Third Reich was a radical restoration of Wilhelmine capitalism that the social democrats had undertaken, but at which they had failed, despite, and because of, their oversight of the destruction of the workers’ movement on whose back they rose to power. The destruction of that movement was the basis for this restoration, but the social democrats, having destroyed at the same time their own base of power in a now demoralized working class, were afterwards no longer capable of holding on to authority – particularly in the face of the right-wing militias, the Freikorps, they had created, and the strength of the political base of the Freikorps in the old military hierarchy and industrial capitalist class which had always disdained and distrusted the social democrats anyway. Under the social democrats, all the old institutions and norms were back, above all, the special status of the military outside the jurisdiction and control of the institutions of civil society, but they were only able to come out into the sun again after the Nazis had been put at their head. Marshall is dazzled into incoherence by superficial appearances.

He says that “…Hitler’s genocidal project was inspired (if not a tribute to) the American colony. Contrary to the racist claim that that racism is un-American, it is more accurate to say that the Third Reich was a type of Americanism.” Yannick Giovanni Marshall, despite his cosmopolitan-sounding name (which could just as easily be an American-sounding name), is as fervent a believer in American exceptionalism as any right-wing American politician, and seems to think in his presentation of social reality that the nature of the American Experience positions it in the center of the world and at the center of history. All he seems to want is to do is paint it black. Marshall’s obsession with the Black experience in America leads him to minimize the experience and crimes committed against Native America, the real “original sin” of the American colonial project (but not even the real “original sin” that got the imperial expansion started in the first place). Never mind the work farms, they were preceded by a rolling genocide which remains, even today, more proportionally murderous than the current, egregious oppression against Black people. The dispossession of Hispanic occupants of the immense territory of Mexico, seized in a deliberately provoked imperialist war, is also completely unmentioned, as is their continued marginalization. Yet these are all essential parts of the fabric of the American imperial project, as is the story of its overseas adventures, whose fruits were not only in all the material and cultural things looted and accumulated for the Empire, but the techniques of surveillance and repression that were brought back home to destroy the workers’ movement in the early 20th century here, a movement that included all the ethnic groups and the genders that make up this country. Not only these things, but most importantly of all, it is the class struggle that is invisible to Marshall and debilitates his critical vision.

Women and their subjection don’t even turn up on his radar, and yet their post-bubonic subordination and that of the peasantry (1381) laid the behavioral and institutional foundations for the merchantile/imperial expansion of what would become capitalism abroad, along with the later suppression of the Levellers’ movement of resistance to the dictatorship of Parliament and its Lord Protector, and the subsequent Restoration, which evolved into the continuously expanding expropriationist domestic policy of the Crown. This seizure of the commons from the ordinary people of England and the war of subjugation waged aganst the Irish and the Scottish highlanders was the dress rehearsal for so many of the instrumentalities that would be more masssively and genocidally employed in the theft of Native America and the kidnapping, murder and super-exploitation of the slave trade, but it just doesn’t rate in Marshall’s narrow vision. It all begins with America for him. But it doesn’t, and it never did.


Another research project reducing everything to racism

Same kind of shit … with an even less sophisticated spin. If it isn’t (relatively non-violent) economic conservatism, it must be racism…so are the wild rumors about people setting fires in Oregon about Black people doing it? No, they’re about antifa. An expensive study done at Vanderbilt University by expensive people, and the result is cheap intellectual bullshit.

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

14th Russian-Turkish war?

Turkish army artillery arrives in the east of Idlib, Syria, Saturday, Feb. 15, 2020.

Eight school facilities bombed in Idlib province, 25th February

For the refugee crisis at the borders, see the comments boxes below the article

Text received from A.:

At the moment, the tension between Russian and Turkish troops in Syria has increased dramatically.

The participants in the conflict exchange blows. The Russian military (Russian air force and mercenaries are attacking the Syrian district of Idlib together with Assad and Pro-Iranian formations) are firing at the Turkish military. The Turks respond by using artillery and firing at Russian planes from MANPADS.

In this war, Turkey and Russia are on opposite sides of the conflict. The Russians support dictator Assad, while Erdogan supports anti-Assad jihadists and Pro-Turkish nationalists. Until recently, Russia, Turkey, Iran, and the United States somehow shared zones of influence in Syria. But recently they have had disagreements. The imperialist powers cannot agree on Idlib.

At the same time, the US has taken the side of Turkey and actively supports it in the confrontation with Russia. Although the US will not use the army against Russia, it is ready to help Turkey with supplies of intelligence and military equipment. It is not clear whether or not the “Patriot” air defense system will be delivered to Turkey, but the US envoy to Syria, James Jeffrey, is clearly pushing Turkey to war with Russia, promising the Turks American support.

Generally speaking, the ratio of forces in the region is flattering to Turkey. Turkey has a huge army, Navy, and modern air force near its bases. At the same time, Russia has a small expeditionary force at a great distance from its bases.

Turkey and Russia have fought 13 times, and Russia lost the last war with Turkey in 1914-1918.

At the same time, the probability that Russia and Turkey will agree at the expense of a “third party”, dividing the Kurdish regions of Syria, is still very high…. This is a realistic way to avoid the threat of the 14th Russian-Turkish war. But this will lead to another massacre, which the Turkish troops will arrange for the Kurds, and to the flight of hundreds of thousands of civilian Kurdish population from Kobani to Kamyshlo.

What to do in this situation? I understand that we do not have an international movement of workers, and there is no conscious proletarian force to counter the threat of war. However, in Russia, the majority (55 percent v. 33 percent) has a negative attitude to the war in Syria. So, clashes with Turkey, if they happen and if they do not work out in favor of Russia, can cause a surge of indignation in Russia.

As far as I’ve read about it, after the death of 16 Turkish soldiers in Syria (they fell after the blows of Assad and Russian forces), Turkish public opinion was radicalized and perhaps most Turks would support revenge. However, I have not seen the data of opinion polls in Turkey in recent days. It is known that ¾ of Turks support Erdogan’s anti-Kurdish operations in the border zone of Syria.

So, unfortunately, Russia and Turkey are on the verge of war, and for our two countries, such wars are an ancient and glorious custom. Usually tens or hundreds of thousands of people died each time on both sides, and in addition, these wars are usually accompanied by genocide.

Few people know that the Armenian genocide, which was organized by the Turkish state, was in some way a reaction by Turkey to the fact that the “Dashnaktsutyun” Armenian nationalist groups and other militias, incited by Russia, opposed the Turkish state. Of course, this is not an excuse for the monstrous and fascist Turkish policy, but some Armenians  blame Russia no less than Turkey for inciting the Armenians to revolt against Turkey and then failing to protect them.

For its part, Russia systematically destroyed the mountaineers of the Caucasus, partly because of their ties to Turkey, and we are also talking about hundreds of thousands of dead and millions of refugees in the 19th century.

Fortunately, now most analysts tend to believe that Russia and Turkey will be able to agree and the war between them will remain in the realm of fantasy. But there is a certain probability of war, and Russian Newspapers today publish estimates of the military forces of Turkey and Russia and the scenario of war, and the Turkish press demands revenge for the killed Turkish military….

“Now Russia and Turkey are really on the verge of war in Syria. It seems that this time Putin did not calculate everything”…

Intel: What’s behind Erdogan’s latest threat of imminent attack in Syria
Read more:……=IwAR1-ajkbUYseL_esQUXl6LOARFbxFFro2r aKBc1EQjehZLEshuu_58CtfzQ#ixzz6Ej0cL2SL

Absolute superiority: who will stop Erdogan in Syria….

Very strange, but few people in the world, even in Russia, are aware of this situation. At the same time, the Russian and world press reports on this. I still very much hope that there will be no war and many analysts think so, but others point to the growing tension…


In 1921 there was a Treaty of Brotherhood between Lenin and Ataturk. Turkey was a part of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed between “Soviet” Russia, Germany, and Turkey in March 3, 1918. The Soviet supply of gold and armaments to the Kemalists in 1920–1922 was a key factor in the latter’s successful grab of power in an Ottoman Empire defeated by the Triple Entente and their victory in the Armenian campaign and the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).

It is interesting that many people in Armenia hate Lenin more than Stalin, speaking of Lenin’s treaties with Ataturk and, in fact, the partition of Armenia, when one part of Armenia was occupied by Turkey and the other by Bolshevik Russia (in 1920).

Lenin’s Red Army was always nothing more than a weapon of internal counter-revolution (aimed at suppressing workers’ strikes and peasant protests), and on the other hand, the red army was a weapon of imperialist aggression of the growing red Bolshevik Empire, this second edition of tsarist autocracy. Lenin’s red army attacked and occupied Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in 1920-1921. It also suppressed the uprisings and riots of the mountain peoples of the Caucasus. But the red army also became an instrument of the imperialist division of a number of regions between Lenin and Ataturk.

To fight against Greece, Lenin sent Mustafa Kemal substantial assistance-weapons and 10 million rubles in gold. Ataturk, for his part, contributed to the creation of the Communist party in Turkey. On March 16, 1921, the “Treaty of friendship and brotherhood” was signed in Moscow, which established the modern border between Turkey and the Transcaucasian republics. The Treaty confirmed Turkish sovereignty over the entire former Russian Kara region. According to the historian Pavel Shlykov, the Bolsheviks had a choice – to give the Turks Armenian lands or Georgian Batum. It was decided to keep the latter – as the port city of Batum was more important than the legendary Ararat. In addition to territorial concessions, Soviet Russia wrote off the Turks ’ debts to the tsarist government.

This was the Golden age of the Union of the two empires, the Empire of Lenin and the Empire of Ataturk.

The modern regime in the Kremlin is obsessed with the idea of a global struggle with the United States in order to conclude something like the second Yalta Treaty with the United States and get America to recognize Russia’s dominance over the entire territory of the former Soviet Union and over all the resources of this gigantic region.

To this end, Putin started a game by getting closer to Erdogan, just as Lenin once got closer to Ataturk. The Kremlin believes that the Alliance between Russia and Turkey contributes to the destruction of the NATO bloc (since Turkey is formally a member of NATO). Russia built a gas Pipeline in Turkey (Turkish stream), which turned Turkey into the largest gas hub that supplies the European Union with energy. At the same time, Russia is building the Akkuyu nuclear power plant in Turkey and selling the latest Russian S-400 anti-missile weapon to Turkey.

The Kremlin may have thought that if Russia is doing a lot for Erdogan, then it may not particularly consider his interests in Syria. But maybe it was a mistake. And after warming, another cold snap came….

…Turkey has long been in the Wake of US policy, except (maybe) for conflicts with Greece and Cyprus. Tayyip Erdogan has dramatically changed this. In contrast to the ideology of Kemalism, Erdogan is a representative of Islamist Sunni politics and foreign military expansion. His doctrine is called “neo-osmanism”. Erdogan seeks to turn Turkey into a hegemonic power in the middle east, as well as in the Eastern Mediterranean. Its goal is also to establish control over the gas fields of the Eastern Mediterranean, Libyan oil etc.

Also, Turkey and Qatar have staked on the influential current of political Islam, the Muslim Brotherhood, and are engaged in an ideological and political struggle for hegemony in the Sunni Muslim world. Deposed Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi was linked to these forces. Dictator Sisi, in Egypt, by contrast, is linked to Saudi Arabia.

So Turkey, along with Qatar, opposes the bloc of middle Eastern States (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the Emirates and Bahrain), as well as Greece, Cyprus, and to some extent Israel . Egypt, Cyprus, Greece and Israel are cooperating in the framework of the gas forum, created with the aim of exporting Mediterranean gas to the European Union. Turkey is trying to establish control over the Eastern Mediterranean and force these countries to share their revenues with it.

This caused difficulties in relations with the European Union. In addition, Turkey has complicated relations with Iran and the United States.

Realizing this, Erdogan pursues a policy of balancing between Russia and the United States. When he has conflicts with the Americans, he turns to Russia for support and Russia comes, sells him the latest weapons and builds gas pipelines and nuclear power plants. But then relations with Russia deteriorate, so Erdogan recalls Turkey’s membership in NATO and its Alliance with the United States. This balancing act and the concern of the United States and Russia about Turkey’s too serious deviation from the goals of these States allow Erdogan to move forward. It is already occupying parts of Northern Iraq and Syria, and its troops have entered Libya.

As for the European Union, Erdogan has found a strong control mechanism – refugees. Whenever Turkey has conflicts with Europe, Erdogan threatens to open Turkey’s borders and allow 4 million refugees from Syria and Iraq to leave for Europe. This forces the European Union to reckon with it, and in addition, Turkey controls part of the gas supply to Europe, and a huge part of the European automotive industry is also transferred to Turkey, so that this country has become the main supplier of passenger cars to European markets. All this also allows Erdogan to influence the policy of the European Union and NATO.

This is a serious military, political and economic expansion of a strong military power (Turkey has the second most powerful army in NATO).

However, Erdogan faces Russia and Russian expansion today. The Russian offensive on Idlib has created a new huge flow of refugees, and Erdogan fears a new refugee crisis inside Turkey itself. In addition, this offensive threatens the positions that the Turkish army has taken in Syria. 12 Turkish bases were surrounded by Assad’s troops and Russian and Iranian mercenaries. This has forced Erdogan to issue an ultimatum. “Either Assad, the Russians, and the Iranians will withdraw from the occupied areas and stop encircling Turkish bases, or Turkey will strike at Assad.” This de facto means a clash with Russia (and partly with Iran).

September 2018

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

German army trains China’s PLA

German army trains China’s PLA

“Hong Kong activist Joshua Wong urged Germany on Sunday (Nov 17) to stop military training assistance to China after its troops appeared in the protest-hit Asian financial hub, a German daily reported. Speaking to the top-selling Bild newspaper, Wong said: “It makes me furious that the German Bundeswehr is apparently helping to train Chinese soldiers. Given the riots in Hong Kong, the defence ministry should have ended this programme long ago.”

Given that Joshua Wong’s main political stance is support for democracy and a desire to seek help for Hong Kong from Western states, he clearly has to denounce this complicity in order to give some semblance of coherence to show to those who would potentially vote for him. But as with Trump’s complicity with Beijing, and the UK cops helping the Hong Kong cops, seeking help from various states, democratic or otherwise, has no coherent basis whatsoever. But then Wong is a politician, so what can you expect?

Above: the Bundeswehr

Below: the PLA

Meanwhile, the Defence Ministers of China and the USA meet to develop “pragmatic cooperation”. “Chinese State Councilor and Minister of National Defense Wei Fenghe met the United States Secretary of Defense Mark Esper here Monday, with both sides reaching the consensus to deepen mutual trust so as to make bilateral military relations a stabilizer for the China-U.S. relationship, Chinese Defense Ministry Spokesperson Wu Qian said here on Monday. The meeting is “positive and constructive”, with both sides agreeing that “the China-U.S. military relationship is an important part of bilateral relations, and developing a healthy and stable bilateral military relationship would benefit not only China and the United States, but also regional and world peace and stability,” Wu said.” (18/11/19)

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

Catalonia October 2019

16/10/19 :

Spain, Catalonia : an example of the confusions of this epoch Videos and links about 4 towns (mainly Barcelona, but also Gerona, Tarragona and Lerida)

See Homage to Catatonia, on this site (from 2 years ago) See also this from 15/10. And this from 14/10.

Apparently those protesting in Catalonia have been influenced by Hong Kong – Hong Kong is exporting its protest techniques around the world. But there are significant differences between the mentality of youth and local history in the 2 places beyond the obvious. Catalonia has had a rich history of proletarian struggle against austerity as recently as 2014, and that’s apart from having been the area of the world of one of history’s most advanced revolutionary movements (climaxing in the years 1936-37). Hong Kong has no equivalent history and for this reason they could be forgiven for their naivety about democracy and for their localist nationalist ideology (which, is not to ignore the enormous problems such attitudes pose), which has the merit at least of being partly understandable because of the threat posed by the world’s most totalitarian state, which reinforces illusions in ‘independence’. Catalans have no such excuse and the fact that some people who called themselves anarchists have now taken on a regionalist independentist ideology is unforgiveable.

This reproduction of 3 texts about the situation is informative. But is too scared to seriously confront the obvious contradictions. It talks of  “The parties… suppressing the anti-capitalist objectives that used to characterize the movement”, without at all informing us of these “anti-capitalist objectives”, of which I’ve heard nothing. It says “Hats off to the anarchists and other anti-authoritarian activists who have spent the last two years spreading non-statist, non-nationalist perspectives and analysis relating to this issue and creating the autonomous, horizontal spaces that have cropped up in this movement since 2017” without providing any details or links to examples of what this has been. In the absence of such evidence it comes over as  wishful-thinking or, at best, a parallel anarchist ideology that avoids confronting  illusions in “Catalonia” for fear of being considered purist or something like that.  “Take your desires for reality” doesn’t mean pretending to yourself that reality conforms to your desires, that the movement will magically transform itself from Catalan nationalism into  a general anti-capitalist struggle. Abstractly, everything could, of course, but without an explicit attack on self-determinist ideology, and the fantasy community it fosters,  and the implicit submission to  an alternative capitalist hierarchy against the one in Madrid, just confronting the cops etc. does not – through some activist fantasy – lead to anywhere other than becoming the ‘violent’ wing of Catalan nationalism. Fascists also fight the cops in certain situations, and often in “horizontalist” ways, without obvious leaders (eg some of the most violent participants in Maidan in the Ukraine in 2014).  Just as you cannot fight alienation with alienated means so the opposite is also true. “Anarchists” who uncritically join this movement  cannot fight capitalism whilst hiding their aims under what is a capitalist content. The whole history of class struggle internationally over the last 100 years or more show that form and content cannot be separated. How  you struggle cannot be separated from what you struggle for.  Whilst independent action could lead to a perspective where proletarians throughout Spain recognise themselves in such independent action it can only do this by asserting as publicly as possible such an aim against localist nationalism. Without this it could equally lead to another method of intensifying the divisions amongst proletarians.

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

Hong Kong state planning a massacre to be blamed on protesters?

On 14th October, cops claimed this:

“A homemade, remote-controlled bomb intended to “kill or to harm” riot control officers was detonated as they deployed against renewed violence in Hong Kong over the weekend, police said Monday, in a further escalation of destructive street battles gripping the business hub. The “loud thud” Sunday night close to riot officers who had been clearing away a protester-built road block was the first known use of an explosive device during protests that started in June over a contested extradition bill and have snowballed into an anti-government, anti-police and anti-China movement. “It exploded less than 2 meters) away from a police vehicle. We have reason to believe that the bomb was meant to target police officers,” Deputy Commissioner Tang Ping-keung said at a news conference, speaking through a translator.”

Was this a bomb planted by the state or was it made by protesters ?

Who knows ? It’s certainly possible that the state is preparing the ground for a bigger bomb which would maybe seem to target cops but in fact kills loads of other people, or some variant on this – eg one that does kill loads of cops, with all its obvious consequences and probably some not-so-obvious ones. It could also have been a bomb made by a protester with no sense of strategy. Who knows ? But speculation is potentially also preparation for such a possible event…

I’ve written far too often before on this possibility.But it should be repeated.

On 11th September, Beijing claimed that there are those in Hong Kong who are planning a 9/11-type terror. Should such an explosion eventually happen, or conveniently be prevented by Hong Kong’s finest in the nick of time, the state will undoubtedly dismiss those who cry “conspiracy!” on the basis of the traditional dismissal of all those who talk of conspiracy (one of the problems with conspiracy theorists is that they reduce all the contradictions of this society to “conspiracy”, and cry wolf so often that, even when the accusation is accurate, nobody believes them). Moreover, the state will probably issue, under false names, loads of conspiracy theories about it that are easily refutable in order to bury the more credible ones under a welter of bulshit. On  20th July HK cops discovered the largest ever cache of high-powered explosives uncovered in the city and then carried out a controlled explosion (see this) . “Police uncovered 2 kilograms of high explosives, 10 petrol bombs, corrosive liquids, weapons and metal poles at the property.The preparation of TATP can easily result in accidental detonation if mistakes are made. Superintendent Steve Li Kwai-wah, of the Organized Crime and Triad Bureau, said the man arrested was wearing a shirt with the logo of the banned pro-independence group Hong Kong National Front. Rallies are taking place across Hong Kong on Saturday and Sunday, with both pro-government and anti-extradition bill marches scheduled. Li said police were still investigating a possible motive and intended uses for the explosives. He did not say if extra police would be arranged for protests this weekend as a result of the raid.”

On Thursday, the 18th of July, this report was published: “Chinese officials in charge of Hong Kong affairs are working on an urgent strategy to solve the city’s political chaos and have ruled out the use of military force…They will soon present top leaders in Beijing with both an immediate plan to handle the mass protests and a longer-term strategy that could result in China overhauling its management of the former British colony…The Chinese officials also see Hong Kong’s police force as key to maintaining stability…Mainland officials want to avoid bloodshed and ensure the financial hub remains largely stable…. China’s approach will be to “lure the snake from its hole,” according to one adviser cited by the SCMP, taking a defensive position until the opposition reveals its strategy.”

Are all these things mere coincidence?

The report above says “A powerful high explosive, TATP was used in the November 2015 Paris attacks, the March 2016 Brussels bombings, the 2017 May Manchester bombing and a failed bomb attempt by an Islamist extremist at the Gare Centrale in Brussels in 2017.”  Is this part of China’s “urgent plan”? Is this a way of luring “the snake from its hole”?

In December 1969, after a massive social movement threatened to turn into an Italian equivalent of France’s May ’68,  fascists in collaboration with a section of the state, planted a bomb in a bank in Milan that killed 17 people; the state blamed it on anarchists.

The Falklands war of 1982, when Thatcher deliberately allowed Argentina to invade so as to manipulate “public opinion” to ensure her re-election, was a direct result of the 1981 riots in the UK, and was designed to ensure her re-election after a massive slump in the polls.

“Terrorism” or war are always methods for the state to distract & divert from (and divide) proletarian subversion.

Undoubtedly I  might be crying wolf yet again, but amongst other ideas to de-rail the movement, these are genuine possiblities.

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

Hong Kong cop violence – made in the UK

Hong Kong cop violence – made in the UK

Very interesting report, which I’ve just received from a friend. But ignore the stupid recommendations at the end, which don’t make sense given the  obvious involvement of the UK in helping Hong Kong’s cops which part of  the rest of the article focuses on.  The article shows not only how the UK cops directly help the HK filth in their tactics against HK protesters, but also how the experience of HK cops in 1967 helped cops at Orgreave against the miners in 1984 and elsewhere in the UK.  This was published on July 18th 2019. The following are some extracts:

“The HKPF [Hong Kong Police Force] stopped recruiting from foreign services in 1994, but older British officers left over from the handover continue to dominate its senior staff. At the center of the heavily criticized police response to the recent protests are three senior British police officers: chief superintendent Rupert Dover, senior superintendent David Jordan, and superintendent Justin Shave. June 12 saw HKPF officers use rubber bullets, beanbag rounds, and pepper spray on peaceful protesters and riot police beating unarmed demonstrators senseless, on the orders of Dover and others, and in the most infamous incident of all, Shave ordered a tear gas round to be fired at an unarmed approaching legislator…

In 1981, shortly after Margaret Thatcher’s government took office, an unlikely meeting took place …Police in the United Kingdom, widely criticized for their handling of the race [sic] riots that same year, had requested help from Roy Henry, the then-police commissioner of Hong Kong, who ordered one of his most senior officers, Director of Operations Richard Quine, to the U.K. to tell them all he knew.

Some 14 years earlier, the HKPF had brutally suppressed the worst violence in the city’s history, as pro-communist rioters launched indiscriminate bomb attacks against civilians. The British police were eager to hear exactly how it had been done—and to reproduce the same tactics against demonstrators in the U.K.

In 1967, with the Cultural Revolution in China reaching its crescendo, communists inspired by the activities of the Red Guards in the mainland waged a protracted insurgency in Hong Kong against the colonial government. More than 200 people were killed, including a radio journalist burnt alive by communist attackers—with some rioters beaten to death by police. Hong Kong’s status as a colony was exploited by the HKPF as a potential testing ground for new strategies that would be deemed too extreme for use in Britain.

The scholar Lawrence Ho details the police measures as encompassing the “liberal use of force and lethal weapons [and] widespread assault and imprisonment of demonstrators,” coupled with the imposition of oppressive legislation and curfews. Revolutionary new policing techniques widely used across the world today, including “kettling” and the first-ever use of tear gas and short shields by newly instituted riot squads, were first tested in the summer of 1967 by the HKPF…

Quine’s recommendations to British police included instituting dedicated units of officers—“riot suppression units,” each with a particular responsibility to fulfill, such as arresting demonstrators (“snatch squads”), firing tear gas, or crowd intimidation. To this end, Quine proposed initiating a program of 10-week crash courses for officers in techniques including kettling, the use of tear gas, and crowd control, with an eye to rapidly improving the British police’s ability to respond to civil unrest.

The training came too late for the race [sic] riots—but the techniques were on full display in British police violence against miners during the 1984-1985 strike, most infamously in the Battle of Orgreave. These techniques were eventually codified amid total secrecy in a file titled the “Public Order Manual of Tactical Options and Related Matters,” an infamous document that only became public in the aftermath of Orgreave.

The events at Orgreave have been described by the historian Tristram Hunt as “[a]lmost medieval in its choreography, it was at various stages a siege, a battle, a chase, a rout and, finally, a brutal example of legalised state violence.” A total of 4,000 police officers—including hundreds mounted on horseback, hastily ordered in by the police commander at Orgreave, Anthony Clement—charged repeatedly at 10,000 striking miners. Mounted police were immediately followed in by the assembled riot suppression units, which had been modeled on the HKPF’s organization in the intermediary three years since Quine’s counsel.

The police response at Orgreave ran largely on HKPF hardware. A former assistant commissioner in the Metropolitan Police, John Alderson, later stated that the policing strategies used at Orgreave were “a carbon copy of the Hong Kong riot squad.” Meanwhile, allegations continue to swirl to this day about police engineering the entire confrontation to damage and discredit the miners….

The most notorious incident of the events on June 12 was the firing of a tear gas cylinder at Democratic Party legislator Wu Chi-wai, who was peaceably approaching a police unit following brutal scenes of that same unit of officers beating unarmed demonstrators.

A white police officer, initially believed to be Dover but subsequently identified as Shave, could be seen directing a subordinate to fire a tear gas cylinder directly at Wu, who was totally unarmed and clearly identified himself as a sitting legislator. Later footage subsequently revealed that Dover was also embedded in the unit.

Elsewhere, rubber bullets and long-range pepper spray were used on both demonstrators and journalists, resulting in 79 injuries, while in total the HKPF fired more than 150 tear gas canisters over the course of a single day. Tactics first developed during the 1967 riots were again on full display, most notably in the repeated deployment of dedicated riot squads equipped with short shields and batons.”

See also this – British cops help Hong Kong cops, which links to  a mainstream video shown on 7th September which talks of British cops helping HK cops, and provides a transcript of the relevant section of the report.

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

Extinction Rebellion (October 2019)


Belgium, Brussels: XR – spectacle of sound and neither enlightenment nor fury, but signifiying nothing


Protests throughout world, though totally lacking in any perspective other than trying to influence the destroyers of the planet not to destroy it  The “Midas Touch” which capitalism has long seen as something positive, in its over 3000-year-old myth was considered as a warning to those who would turn everything into gold, as the king even turned food into inedible gold and eventually turned his son into gold, finally dying of starvation. This is  something that capital is increasingly realising for an increasing majority of people – it’s in the nature of political economy, the power to transform everything into a commodity (already 22,000 kids worldwide die each day because of malnutrition and easily curable diseases, because of  their need for money which they don’t have). Without a vision of destroying commodified social relations, of destroying the need for money through the expropriation of the expropriators, extermination rebellion will break on the rocks of its contradictions. See  below.


UK, London: Extinction Rebellion  try to cover Treasury with fake blood but bloody themselves (video)

Better targeted spraypaint: graffiti  on cinema mid- 1970s

Re. Extinction Rebellion, see this (from 15/4/19) interesting initiative – an alternative to Extinction Rebellion’s jail-fodder actions Our main route consisted of visiting and blockading various locations with functional significance for capital and resource transactions in London – the Stock Exchange, the Bank of England and the Metal Exchange. Along the tour we also stopped off at other points of interest – banks, courts, the church of Scientology – either chosen by particular comrades in the moment, or by the police who, due to not having any idea of our plans, kept running to protect buildings we hadn’t previously considered trying to get into. The flyer they produced for their march-cum-blockade, however, is a typical lowest common denominator of correct line anti-capitalism, coming from the eclectic  mix of its members,  which doesn’t even begin to try to confront the contradictions of ecological ideologies and movements – perhaps for fear of being unpopular. More about them here. Meawhile, this shows clearly the capitalist nature of the leadership of Extinction Rebellion.  And this shows how their phoney legal advisers are a danger to anybody getting arrested on their arrest-fodder demos. And this is a good critique of the Green New Deal. See also “Extinction Rebellion: Not the Struggle we Need”.

Should also be pointed out that claiming some historical lineage with the Suffragettes’ apparent non-violence is a lie. The Suffragettes were often  “violent ” in society’s terms (ie against things; from the point of view of capital people are mere profane commodities, whilst  property is sacred), and took some very daring initiatives against mainstream culture: “What’s largely forgotten is the excellent violence of the women against private property and against aspects of culture and religion in this movement: Mary Richardson herself was imprisoned in October 1913 for burning down an unoccupied house, and was, with another woman, the first woman forcibly fed under the Cat and Mouse Act against hunger strikers. In 1914, in the seven months before the outbreak of a very convenient war: 3 Scottish castles were destroyed by fire on a single night; the Carnegie Library in Birmingham was burnt; Romney’s “Master Thornhill” in the Birmingham Art Gallery was slashed by Bertha Ryland, daughter of an early suffragist; Carlyle’s portrait of Millais in the National Gallery and a number of other pictures were attacked, a Bartolozzi drawing in the Doré Gallery completely ruined; many large empty houses in all parts of the country were set on fire, including Redlynch House, where the damage was estimated at £40,000 – no precise calculations here – but certainly well over a million quid in today’s money, possibly over £3m. Railway stations, piers, sports pavilions, haystacks were set on fire. A bomb exploded in Westminster Abbey and in St George’s church where a famous stained-glass window was damaged. There were two explosions in St.John’s, Westminster and one in St Martin in the Fields, and one in Spurgeon’s Tabernacle. The ancient Breadsall Church and the ancient Wargrave Church were destroyed. As far as we know, nobody was hurt in these explosions and arson attacks. The Albert Hall organ was flooded, causing £2000 worth of damage….” (here).

suffragette burning of northfield

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

On fires and firebombs – Hong Kong, 7/10/19

On fires and firebombs “Hong Kong fire officials have voiced concern about online instructions for petrol bombs that suggest using a self-igniting material that would make the explosives even more dangerous and unpredictable.”

The fact that such an apparently ‘neutral’ source of information as the fire brigade could warn of potentially frightening consequences of firebombs got me thinking that instead of an obvious terrorist attack (like the fascists’ Piazza Fontana bombing following the Italian autumn movement of 1969 – see also this), the state might try to arrange a fire that kills loads of people. They did this in Athens in May 2010, when young nihilist anarchists firebombed a bank. It was a strike day, and the young guys thought the bank was empty (the doors were locked). In fact, the management had locked employees in – and 3 were killed. There was no fire exit, no sprinklers or fire extinguishing apparatus in the bank (see this and the following posts for details…eventually 3 bank officials were found guilty, though the head of the bank – Andreas Vgenopoulos – the main person responsible – got off scott-free, surprise surprise). I’ve cried wolf so many times over the possibility of a state (or maybe triad) strategy like the Piazza Fontana bombing in ’69, maybe nobody will believe me, but it seems like a real possibility but maybe taking another form like a fire.

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

Hong Kong – the kindness of strangers – 7/10/19


Report on the spread of solidarity and the kindness of strangers Report about October 1st on how whole neighbourhood helped protesters escape cops and teargas, inviting them into their flats, providing reconnaissance information about cop movements etc. “So even those not protesting on the streets are protesting, all contributing to the resistance in their own way. The majority of the city is united against the regime. The story of Wan Chai is not new to me: I’ve experienced the kindness and aid of strangers many times in recent weeks. Just days before, I’d been going toward Causeway Bay together with about 2,000 protesters, again retreating from the police. We heard there were a lot of riot police in Causeway Bay and so decided to head southward, but every street we came to, we saw police at the end of it. Eventually, we had no choice but to go into Happy Valley, a prosperous neighbourhood that has seen little of the protests. It was terra incognita for most of us. Once there, we felt safer, but we knew it was just a matter of time before the police would try to flush us out, and we didn’t know where to go. Security guards emerged from middle-class high-rises and offered directions. A taxi driver had seen us and alerted his colleagues. Before long, dozens of taxis started to arrive. Private drivers pulled up, rolled down their windows, and announced their destination. Protesters hopped in. Within about a half hour, of those 2,000 protesters, no one but myself and a few others remained on the street. Among protesters, a guardian rule is you never leave anyone behind. I play the role of the one who remains until last to make sure everyone gets out. I changed out of my outfit and headed back to cross police lines. Along the way, knowing residents who witnessed and helped the evacuation gave me knowing smiles and thumbs up. “Stay safe, stay safe,” they said….This kind of resistance – it’s a feeling within us. Hong Kong people are famously phlegmatic, unexpressive. We don’t talk much or effuse. But these days, we recognise something in each other, a common purpose, a common identity. This is the sort of unity that can’t be crushed by force. In fact, police attacks fortify it, drawing us closer together. I’m often asked how this will all end. My true feeling is, it doesn’t matter, because the little secret that everyone knows and no one is saying (and perhaps many aren’t even admitting to ourselves) is, we’ve already won. The immediate and original concrete objective, the withdrawal of the extradition bill, has been achieved. We’ve won the battle for hearts and minds. But beyond that, we’ve achieved something much more profound than that: confidence in ourselves as a people and trust in one another for what is sure to be a long, hard struggle ahead.”

SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.

Ecuador – October 2019

Proletarians show Lenin what is to be done:

A police vehicle burns during a protest against Ecuador’s President Lenin Moreno’s austerity measures in Quito, October 7, 2019

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President forced to retreat “Ecuador’s president, Lenín Moreno, has struck a deal with indigenous leaders to cancel a disputed austerity package and end nearly two weeks of protests that have paralysed the economy and left seven dead. Under the agreement, Moreno will withdraw the International Monetary Fund-backed package, known as Decree 883, that included a sharp rise in fuel costs. Indigenous leaders, in turn, will call on their followers to end protests and street blockades. “Comrades, this deal is a compromise on both sides,” Moreno said. “The indigenous mobilisation will end and Decree 883 will be lifted.” The two sides will work together to develop a package of measures to cut government spending, increase revenue and reduce Ecuador’s unsustainable budget deficits and public debt. In a shift from the heated language of the last 10 days of protests, each side at the negotiations praised the other’s willingness to talk as they outlined their positions in the first hour before a short break. Other indigenous demands included higher taxes on the wealthy and the firing of the interior and defence ministers over their handling of the protests.”

One has to be very naive to think that any deal that will have to have the eventual aproval of the IMF if the country is going to receive its strings-attached money will be anything other than a sell-out. Of course, the IMF may refuse to give them money – and where will that end? Or maybe it’s just a bluff on the part of the government so as  to disband the movement and give them time to work out a better strategy (attacking the whole of the dispossessed almost  all at once was not an intelligent strategy on the part of the state). An interesting potential consequence of this apparently total victory will be how this may very well encourage the poor in other Latin American countries.

Interesting and informative interview  with participant in the uprising (interview given on 10th October)


Army called as curfew is announced

As protests continue, we see contrary positions from the leaders of the indigenous groups, mainly coming from the confused and contradictory positions of Lenin Moreno

” The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador explained that at the moment there were no talks between the protesters and the government… Indigenous activists in Ecuador will continue protests across the country despite accepting President Lenin Moreno’s offer to hold dialogue, the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador said…”We will hold contact in order to try to ensure the abolition of Decree 883 [on cancelling subsidies on fuel prices] but we will continue protests across the country demanding the government ensure adequate guarantees,” the statement said. The confederation explained that at the moment there were no talks between the protesters and the government. “There cannot be any real dialogue until security guarantees are provided for indigenous activists across the entire country’s territory,” the statement said. On Friday, President Moreno invited protest leaders to hold a direct dialogue in order to stop violence and stabilize domestic political situation. The confederation’s first reaction was to reject talks until the government dropped plans to cancel subsidies, but on Saturday the activists said they were in favor of dialogue. The first round of talks between Ecuador’s government and the indigenous activists is due to be held the capital of Quito at 3 pm. local time on Sunday, the South American country’s UN mission wrote on Twitter. ..Ecuador’s authorities said on Wednesday that over 400 people, including 86 police officers, sought medical assistance. The press service of the human rights ombudsperson said that five people died in clashes between protesters and the police. On Saturday, Quito Mayor Jorge Yunda said Ecuador’s leadership had agreed to meet the protesters’ demands and scrutinize the decree on cancelling subsidies on fuel. Later Moreno made a decision to introduce curfew in Quito and its outskirts.”


Indigenous leaders reverse decision from previous day to not talk with Lenin Moreno   “An indigenous group in Ecuador that has led protests for more than a week against a law that ended fuel subsidies said on Saturday it has accepted direct talks with President Lenin Moreno, the first sign of a possible breakthrough in the dispute. The highland capital of Quito was rocked by a 10th day of clashes over Moreno’s austerity plan, with the office of Ecuador’s comptroller set on fire and access roads to Quito’s airport blocked. TV channel Teleamazonas showed images of its own offices in flames and said its employees were unharmed…Conaie, an umbrella organization for indigenous people in Ecuador, made the announcement about the talks with Moreno. Ecuador’s ombudsman Freddy Carrion, who has been monitoring the conflict and encouraging dialogue, said Conaie’s leaders were unaware that Moreno planned to announce a curfew and said it could jeopardize talks. “This measure looks like a desperate attempt by the government that will only worsen the violence,” said Carrion. He recommended Moreno suspend the subsidy cut immediately…Earlier on Saturday, one of Conaie’s leaders told TV channel Ecuavisa that conditions for the talks included them being in public and having them broadcast. “We’re not going to talk behind closed doors. It has to be with the Ecuadorean people,” Leonidas Iza said in broadcast comments. “There has to be large screens so every tiny input from our members can be heard.”

On 11th October they’d said “The dialogue that he’s seeking lacks credibility” (statement by  indigenous umbrella group CONAIE) , adding that it would negotiate with the government only when a decree to remove fuel subsidies had been “repealed.” What’s happened to change that basic principle? “Suspending” the subsidy cut should be treated with the same scepticism that with which the movement in Hong Kong treated Lam when  she  “suspended” the extradition law. Nobody believed her, and she had to withdraw it totally at the beginning of September, by which time  it was too little too late.

National Auditor’s office torched


Indigenous group rejects pseudo-dialogue with President Lenin Moreno as clashes continue (video)lots of videos and links here More here The protests first erupted last week when truck drivers took to the streets, but indigenous protesters have since taken the lead, with villagers from the highlands walking and hitching rides to reach Quito.Representatives of Amazonian tribes, many carrying spears, streamed into the city late Thursday and early Friday, adding opposition to oil drilling to a growing list of complaints about Moreno’s government.While most roads in Quito outside of the center remained clear, dozens of taxis formed a caravan that wound through the city to express solidarity with protesters, honking and displaying anti-Moreno signs.”


Cops captured by movement The demonstrators detained at least eight uniformed police officers who they forced on stage before a crowd. The stance of the indigenous movement has hardened even more after clashes on Wednesday night left more casualties. Indigenous leaders here said there will be no negotiation with the government, and some are calling for Ecuadorian President Moreno to step down…Foreign Minister José Valencia said it will not negotiate under the threat of violence and vandalism. “This is an extremely critical situation which is not a decision of the indigenous leaders,” Valencia said.” (cops were later released, deprived of their bullet-proof vests & boots)5 protesters, including an indigenous leader, killed



Ecuador: 1st day of possibly indefinite general strikewhilst some indigenous leaders (certainly not all of them) condemn “vandalism and looting”clashes in Guayaquil, where government has moved to …More here Videos and other links hereForce Majeure (unforeseeable circumstances preventing fulfillment of  contract.) declared on all oil operations – pipelines shut down

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Quito, 9/10/19 (above & below)
Firing home-made mortar from an improvised rocket-launcher
Protesters commandeer army vehicle, Quito


Ecuador, Quito: anti-austerity riots etc. force Lenin Moreno’s government to relocate outside of the capital after state ends fuel subsidies, sacks some public sector workers, threatens privatisations “Images from Quito showed protesters hurling petrol bombs and stones, ransacking and vandalising public buildings as well as clashing with the police in running battles late into the night… The president faces a stiff challenge from indigenous groups and others who blocked some roads for a fifth day from Monday morning with stones, tyres and branches. Indigenous-led protests brought down three presidents in the years before Correa’s rule. Rioters in Quito forced their way into the comptroller general’s office and vandalised the assembly building on Monday. It followed days of violence in which protesters burned military vehicles, destroyed dozens of rose farms, a dairy and an oil production facility. The outnumbered security forces have been unable to prevent much of the destruction… prices rose overnight by about a quarter for petrol and double for diesel. A state of emergency was imposed on Thursday. Lorry and taxi drivers forced a partial shutdown of Quito’s airport and roadblocks have paralysed trunks roads across the country. ” More here “The South American country of 17 million people appeared to be at a dangerous impasse, paralyzed by a lack of public transport and blockaded roads that were taking a toll on an already vulnerable economy. Violence has persisted since last week, when President Lenín Moreno’s decision to end subsidies led to a sharp increase in fuel prices. Protesters seized some oil installations and the state oil company, Petroecuador, warned that production losses could reach 165,000 barrels a day, or nearly one-third of total production, if insecurity continues. The government declared an overnight curfew around key state installations and government buildings as well as vital infrastructure such as airports and oil refineries. Earlier Tuesday, protesters broke through police barriers and some entered the empty congress building in Quito. Police fired tear gas and forced them to retreat. Indigenous protesters occupied two water treatment plants in the city of Ambato, south of the capital, raising concern about supply to residents, according to municipal authorities. On Monday night, hundreds of people rampaged through the Duran area near the port city of Guayaquil, looting pharmacies, electronic appliance stores and other buildings. In another part of Ecuador, police abandoned an armored vehicle to protesters who set it on fire. In multiple areas, rioters smashed car windows, broke into shops and confronted security forces...”…and here (videos and links).

Indigenous anti-government protesters arrive by foot in Quito, Tuesday, Oct. 8, 2019


Ecuador: movement grows and strengthens (videos and links)


Ecuador: blockades and clashes throughout country following massive rise in fuel prices (videos and links in Spanish) – some show soldiers “arrested” by part of the indigenous population.


Ecuador: state of emergency declared as riots develop alongside transport strike following massive increase in fuel prices (videos and links)

Interesting resumé of events

This implicitly shows how those who follow and trust in leaders allow them to recuperate and disarm movements and even participate in capitalist austerity measures:

“Indigenous leaders agreed to be part of a commission that would come up with a new decree mandating budget cuts in other areas to fulfill IMF obligations imposing austerity measures. On Monday morning, the government lifted the state of emergency and the curfew in Quito. In an act of final solidarity and street organization, Indigenous people, along with volunteers and police officers, worked to clean streets and remove roadblocks. Moreno officially revoked the decree later that day. While many celebrated the Moreno decision as a people’s victory against the IMF, mainstream media and even some progressive outlets outside the country falsely reported that the Ecuadorian government had done away with all austerity measures, with some going as far as saying the deal with the IMF had been dropped altogether. However, most of the austerity measures in the new economic package, such as reducing vacation time for public sector from 30 days to 15 days, and reducing salaries and labor protections for public and private employees, remain untouched. The executive now must send those IMF-suggested reforms to the National Assembly for approval. Some also remain on edge recalling that the government had previously said a second economic package would be introduced after the first one was approved. Some would even argue that the scrapping of the decree was not a real win as the government has made it clear that a new presidential decree concerning the subsidies would have to be agreed on as part of the newly created national commission.”


SamFanto was born, and then he lived a bit but never enough.